Pleural Mesothelioma Cancer| Stages, Treatments, Surgeries

pleural mesothelioma cancer

Pleural Mesothelioma Cancer:

Mesothelioma is a rare malignant tumor that affects the cells of the mesothelium, a protective membrane that covers most of the body’s internal organs including the pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium. Its most common form is malignant pleural mesothelioma cancer. It is a so-called primitive form of pleural cancer, which is characterized by a multiplication of cancer cells in the tissue constituting the pleura. The pleura are a membrane that envelops the lungs, consisting of two layers, one covers the lungs (inner leaflet or visceral pleura), and the other covers the inside of the chest cavity (outer leaf or parietal pleura). When the disease occurs, the pleura thicken takes a scalloped appearance and space between these two leaflets (pleural cavity) can fill with fluid and cause breathing difficulties.

Multiple parameters that influence the appearance of mesothelioma:

  • The time elapsed from the beginning of the exhibition
  • the cumulative dose of asbestos: it is expressed in fibers per milliliter (mL) of air multiplied by the number of years of exposure for occupational exposures, and in fibers per liter of air multiplied by the number of years of exposure for general population exposures;
  • Peaks of exposure

Stages of Pleural Mesothelioma Cancer:

Staging describes or classifies cancer based on the amount of cancer present in the body and its location at the initial diagnosis. This is often called the extent of cancer. The information revealed by the examinations is used to determine the size of the tumor, which parts of the organ are affected by cancer, whether cancer has spread from its place of origin and where he has spread. Your healthcare team uses the stadium to plan your treatment and predict the outcome (your prognosis).

The pleural mesothelioma cancer originates in the lining (membrane) forming a protective cushion around the lungs (called pleura). The most frequently used staging system for pleural mesothelioma is the TNM classification. In the case of this type of cancer, there are 4 stages. For stages, 1 to 4, Roman numerals I, II, III, and IV are often used, but in order to make the text clearer, we will use Arabic numerals 1, 2, 3 and 4. In general, more the number of the stage is high, the more cancer has spread. Talk to your doctor if you have questions about staging.

The TNM classification is used to establish the stage of pleural mesothelioma cancer only. There is no staging system for mesothelioma that appears in the lining of the abdomen (peritoneal mesothelioma) or for rare types of mesothelioma.

Stage 1A

Cancer is present in the lining of the chest wall (parietal pleura) or in the envelope covering the lung (visceral pleura) on the same side of the chest as the tumor.

Stage 1B

The cancer is present in the parietal pleura or in the visceral pleura on the same side of the thorax as the tumor.

It can form at least one of the following structures:

  • Connective tissue (fascia) forming part of the chest wall
  • Fat in the space between the lungs
  • Soft tissues of the chest wall (in one region)
  • Coating of the heart (pericardium) (without crossing it completely)

Stage 2

Cancer is present in the lining of the chest wall or in the envelope that covers the lung on the same side of the chest as the tumor. It may also have invaded at least one of the following structures:

  • Diaphragm
  • Lung tissue
  • Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes of the chest on the same side of the body as the tumor.

Stage 3A

The cancer is present in the parietal pleura or in the visceral pleura on the same side of the thorax as the tumor. It can form at least one of the following structures:

  • The connective tissue forming part of the chest wall
  • Fat in the space between the lungs
  • Soft tissues of the chest wall (in one region)
  • Coating of the heart (without crossing it completely)
  • Cancer has also spread to the lymph nodes of the chest on the same side of the body as the tumor.

Stage 3B

Cancer is present in the lining of the chest wall or in the envelope that covers the lung on the same side of the chest as the tumor. It may also have invaded at least one of the following structures:

  • Diaphragm
  • Lung tissue
  • The connective tissue forming part of the chest wall
  • Fat in the space between the lungs
  • Soft tissues of the chest wall (in one region)
  • Coating of the heart (without crossing it completely)
  • Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes on the other side of the chest as the tumor.

OR

The cancer is present in the parietal pleura or in the visceral pleura on the same side of the thorax as the tumor. It has also invaded at least one of the following structures:

  • Chest wall (may also have invaded the ribs)
  • Peritoneum
  • Parietal pleura or visceral pleura on the other side of the thorax
  • Esophagus, trachea, heart or large blood vessels in the space between the lungs (mediastinum)
  • Bones of the spine (vertebrae)
  • Spinal cord
  • Coating of the heart (crosses it)

Stage 4

Cancer has spread to other parts of the body (distant metastases), such as the lungs on the other side of the body, the liver or bones. There is also talk of metastatic pleural mesothelioma cancer.

Treatments for Pleural Mesothelioma Cancer:

The treatment options for pleural mesothelioma depend on whether cancer can be removed by surgery (it is said to be resectable) or not (it is said to be unresectable). Your healthcare team will offer you treatments according to your needs and will discuss with you to develop a treatment plan.

Surgery is not usually offered to people with pleural mesothelioma of sarcomatoid subtype because it is an aggressive tumor that recurs (recurrence) quickly after treatment.

Depending on the stage of pleural mesothelioma, the following treatment options may be used.

  • Resectable pleural mesothelioma

Resectable pleural mesothelioma includes most stage 1 tumors and may include some stage 2 or stage 3 tumors.

  • Radiotherapy

External radiotherapy is now being administered before surgery to treat resectable pleural mesothelioma, as studies have shown that this significantly improves survival.

If external radiotherapy is not used before surgery, it may be used after extrapleural pneumonectomy.

Radiation is directed to the side of the chest where pleural mesothelioma has been detected.

Radiotherapy is usually not given after a pleurectomy/decortication because it may damage the lung.

  • Surgery

Surgery is more effective when it removes all or most of cancer. The person operated on must be in good enough health to undergo it and recover from it.

The types of surgeries offered are:

  • Extrapleural pneumonectomy
  • Pleurectomy / decortication
  • Chemotherapy

In the case of resectable pleural mesothelioma, chemotherapy is offered after surgery.

The most common chemotherapeutic combinations used to treat pleural mesothelioma are:

  • Cisplatin and Pemetrexed (Alimta)
  • Cisplatin and Raltitrexed (Tomudex)
  • Pemetrexed and Carboplatin (Paraplatin, Paraplatin AQ) – may be available to people who have other health problems and cannot receive cisplatin

Unresectable Pleural Mesothelioma cancer:

Unresectable pleural mesothelioma includes stage 4 tumors and some stage 2 or stage 3 tumors. This cancer has spread too much to be completely removed by surgery.

Treatments for unresectable cancer can also be offered to people who are not healthy enough to undergo surgery to remove mesothelioma or who decide not to have surgery.

Palliative surgeries

Palliative surgeries relieve symptoms, such as pain or difficulty breathing, but they do not treat cancer itself. The palliative surgical procedures offered to treat unresectable pleural mesothelioma may include:

  • Tumor reduction
  • Thoracentesis
  • Pleurodesis
  • Chemotherapy

Mesothelioma recurrence

The recurrence of mesothelioma means that cancer recurs as a result of the treatment. It can reappear in a part of the body where the mesothelioma originates, such as the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium or envelope covering the testicles (tunica vaginalis). If it reappears at the place where it first took birth, it is local recidivism. If it reappears in tissues or lymph nodes near where it first originated, it is called regional recurrence. It can also reappear in another part of the body: it is called recurrence or distant metastasis.

Pericardial Mesothelioma| Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatments

pericardial mesothelioma

Pericardial Mesothelioma:

Pericardial Mesothelioma is a very rare type of cancer caused due to asbestos. It develops around the outer lining of your heart and the only possible diagnosis is after an autopsy. Primarily there are 4 types of Mesothelioma- Pleural Mesothelioma, Peritoneal Mesothelioma, Pericardial Mesothelioma and Testicular Mesothelioma. Out of these four types of Mesothelioma, Pleural and Peritoneal are the most common type of Mesothelioma, whereas the other is the rarest type.

Treatment for Pericardial Mesothelioma:

Because of the rarity of the disease, the treatments are not yet fully developed. However, some common treatments for Pericardial Mesothelioma include:

Pericardiectomy: The growth of tumor in the pericardium leads to irritation. With the help of Pericardiectomy, the pericardium is removed either completely or partially. Such procedures are performed to stop the recurring symptoms of Pericardial Mesothelioma.

Chemotherapy: The growth of the tumor is at a very fast rate, once it has reached extreme levels. With the help of Chemotherapy, the growth of the tumor can be slowed down to an extent.

Pericardiocentesis: The pressure caused by pericardial effusions can be reduced with the help of Pericardiocentesis.

Pericardial Mesothelioma Symptoms :

The initial stage of Mesothelioma gives no such prompt symptoms. Most of the patients of Mesothelioma get to know about it when it is at an extreme stage.

The following are the symptoms of Pericardial Mesothelioma:

  • Difficult in breathing, even when taking rest
  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Murmurs
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue
  • Irregular heartbeat

If you find any of the above symptoms, you should immediately go for a doctor visit. Possibly the doctor will do some Mesothelioma x-ray, CT scans to confirm.

How Is Pericardial Mesothelioma Diagnosed?

The diagnosis of Pericardial Mesothelioma is performed by doing an overall assessment of your medical history, symptoms, and present medical condition.
Next step is to find the location of the tumor and for this imaging tests and biopsy and physical examinations are done. This also confirms if the tumor is cancerous or not.

Prognosis for Pericardial Mesothelioma:

The prognosis of all types Mesothelioma are worse and so the same is the case with Pericardial Mesothelioma. The survival period of Pericardial Mesothelioma is about 6 months.
But there is evidence of patients with Pericardial Mesothelioma surviving for more than a year (though very rare).

Factors affecting the prognosis of Pericardial Mesothelioma:

  • Gender of the patient
  • Type of cells
  • Size of tumor
  • Staging of tumor

Is Mesothelioma Cancer? Do I have Mesothelioma?

Is Mesothelioma Cancer?

Is Mesothelioma Cancer?

Actually Yes. Mesothelioma is cancer which is related to Asbestos. Though Mesothelioma is a rare type of cancer, yet it is very aggressive. It develops in the lining of the lungs, heart or abdomen.

The bitter truth is that there is no such possible cure for Mesothelioma but however the treatments of Mesothelioma are available. Also, the patients suffering from Mesothelioma have very less life expectancy.

Based on the part where Mesothelioma has affected, it can be classified into different types. The most prone part to Mesothelioma is lungs, which is referred to as Pleural Mesothelioma.

Mesothelioma affecting abdomen is referred to as Peritoneal Mesothelioma. We will discuss them in brief later in the article.

The most important factors for patients survival depends upon the stage of the disease and the location of the tumor. Patients age, overall health, previous disease and medical conditions and the severity of the tumor makes a major impact on the survival rate of Mesothelioma patients.

Do I have Mesothelioma?

It’s not easy to distinguish the symptoms of Mesothelioma with another disease. Reason being- the symptoms are common and same with other types of disease.

However, the most common symptoms that can answer the question do I have Mesothelioma are

  • Pain in chest or rib
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Shortness of breath
  • Coughing

Read More Signs and Symptoms of Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma Symptoms| Signs of Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma symptoms

Mesothelioma Symptoms:

The symptoms of Mesothelioma are highly variable. A part of it depends on how rapidly the tumor develops and part of it depends on where the tumor is.

If the tumor is in the chest, patients often complain of heaviness on the affected side because they have an accumulation of fluid in the chest.

Signs of Mesothelioma:

The signs of Mesothelioma can be confusing and sometimes not easy to understand. Also, people often mistake it for other disease symptoms. However, the most common signs of Mesothelioma are:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fever or night sweats
  • Bloating
  • Body aches

Early symptoms of Mesothelioma are:

  • Dry cough
  • Fatigue
  • Respiratory complications
  • Weakness of muscles

Early symptoms of Mesothelioma are so mild and common with other types of disease symptoms that they often go unnoticed at the initial stage. Some stages of Mesothelioma are so miserable that they are identified and noticed at the stage of 3 and 4. At this alarming stage, the treatment and cure of Mesothelioma become almost difficult, rather say impossible. Early diagnosis of Mesothelioma means early treatment and if the treatment is done early at an initial stage, the chances of survival also increase.